Saturday, 21 November 2015

Unit 2. Classification of living things. Monera, Fungi and Protista kingdoms. Viruses.


Wild mushrooms are living things that grow on forest floors, tree trunks and even on top of each other. They need moist, cool temperatures and some light. Here it is one mushroom you can find in one of the trees of our school, amazing!! isn't it?

Which living thing can you see?
Which kingdom does it belong to?
Is this living thing unicellular or multicellular?


Protists include two very different types of organisms: algae and protozoa.

Algae are aquatic living things that can be unicellular or multicellular. They can make their own food (autotrophs). Somo multicellular marine algae can grow to a very large size.

Algae are very nutritious, so they are used as food in many countries. They are also used as fertilizer and to produce cosmetics.


Protozoa are unicellular living things that live in aquatic environments. They feed on other organisms. Somo protozoa can cause diseases, like malaria.


Monerans are unicellular living things. This kingdom includes bacteria, the most abundant of all living things.


Bacteria are the smallest and simplest living things, and can only be seen through a microscope.

Most bacteria feed on other organisms, but some bacteria make their own food.

Bacteria can be foound everywhere in the world. They can live in all kinds of evnironments: in water, soil, air or inside other living things.

Some bacteria are helpful, like the ones used to make yoghurt, but other are harmful, like the ones that cuase cholera.


Viruses are not included in any of the five kingdoms because they are not considered living things. They cannot perform vital functions (nutrition, interaction, reproduction) on their own. A virus is not a cell. It is a microscopic body that can only reproduce inside living things. Viruses may cause illnesses (influenza gripe, measles sarampión, chicken pox varicela etc.)

Unit 2. The classification of living things. Vertebrates.


Unit 2. Natural Sciences. Living Things.

Saturday, 7 November 2015

Ciencias Sociales. Unidad 5. La Edad Media en la Comunidad de Madrid.

Hola chic@s,

el tema sobre la Edad Media en España toca a su fin. Por ese motivo os invito a vosotr@s y a vuestras familias a que visitéis varias construcciones medievales que hay en la Comunidad de Madrid. Espero que lo disfrutéis.

Durante la época visigoda, el territorio que hoy ocupa la Comunidad de Madrid era muy inseguro por lo que los habitantes fueron abandonando las ciudades y se dispersaron por el campo para protegerse, por lo que apenas quedan construcciones.

Cuando en el año 711 los musulmanes invadieron la Península Ibérica, se asentaron en poco tiempo en las tierras que hoy ocupa la Comunidad de Madrid, que hacía frontera con los reinos cristianos.
Para defender la frontera, los musulmanes construyeron atalayas. Éstas eran torres circulares que se utilizaban para comunicarse mediante señales de humo. Por ejemplo, la Atalaya de Arrebatacapas en Torrelaguna.

En 1085, el rey cristiano Alfonso VI conquistó el reino taifa de Toledo, del que formaba parte el territorio que hoy ocupa la Comunidad de Madrid. Este territorio fue una peligrosa frontera entre al-Ándalus y Castilla. Muchas personas que habitaban en esta zona se dedicaban a la ganadería. Así, mientras cuidaban sus rebaños, vigilaban que las fronteras no fueran atacadas.
Un ejemplo de construcción defensiva de esta época es el Castillo de Villarejo de Salvanés. 

Otras construcciones de la época son:

Las murallas de Buitrago del Lozoya

El Castillo de Manzanares el Real.

Social Sciences. Unit 5. Spain in the Middle Ages. Timelines.

Sunday, 1 November 2015

Social Sciences. Unit 5. Spain in the Middle Ages. The Reconquista.


Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar was an important figure in the history of the Reconquista. He was also known as El Cid Campeador (Cid, from the Arabic, means "lord"). 

He was born in Burgos, in the Kingdom of Castilla, in about 1043. He became a military commander and fought for King Sancho II against the Muslims. He also helped Sancho to fight against his brother, King Alfonso VI of León. But then Sancho died and Alfonso became King of Castilla.

El Cid served King Alfonso VI until he was banished (le desterraron) from his kingdom in 1081. The tale of his exile and his exploits (hazañas) are told in "The Song of the Cid" (El Cantar de Mio Cid), a poetry book written after his death. This poem made him a national hero.

El Cid took control of Valencia in 1094 and he established an independent señoria. 

His battle horse was called "Babieca". They had a horse for battles and another one for travelling, and would change horses quickly if they had to fight, so that their best one would not be tired from the journey. 

He died in Valencia in 1099. Legend says that after El Cid died he was strapped (atado con cuerdas) into his horse and sent into battle against Muslims.

After his death, the city of Valencia resisted the Almoravid assault for two more years, under the rule of El Cid's widow, Jimena.

El Cid's sword "Tizona" can still be seen in Burgos Museum.

Statue of  El Cid by González Quesada (1955) in Burgos.

Here you have a web in Spanish with games, comics and much more staff about El Cid.


Here you've got an animated film about El Cid and a TV animated serie. Enjoy!!

Social Sciences. Unit 5. Spain in the Middle Ages. What was the Reconquista?

When the Muslims created al-Andalus, many Christians moved to the mountains in the north. Here was where Visigoth noble Pelayo defeated the Muslims in Battle of Covadonga in 722 A.D. and the Reconquista began.

After that, Don Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias. Later on this kingdom became the Kingdom of León. There were other Christian kigdoms too, such as the Kingdoms of Castilla, Navarra and Aragón

Statue of Don Pelayo in Covadonga (Asturias)

From the 8th and the 15th centuries, the Christian kingdoms expanded in to the south. They conquered lands from al-Andalus. This process is called the Reconquista.

Christians wanted to conquer al-Andalus for three reasons:

  1. The Christian kings needed more land for growing crops, raising animals and because the population was increasing.
  2. The Christians kings thought the lands of al-Andalus should be ruled by Christians, as in the times of the Christians Visigoths.
  3. After al-Andalus was divided into small taifa kingdoms, it was easier to conquer them.

During this time, despite the fights for the Reconquista, Muslims, Christians and Jews lived together and established a rich excange between cultures.

Alfonso VI was King of Castilla and León. In 1085 he conquered Toledo from the Muslims. It was a very important victory for the Christian armies because Toledo was a strategic area and a symbol of Christianity from the time of Visigoths.

Statue of Alfonso VI. Jardines de Sabatini, Madrid.

Alfonso VI conquered Toledo, 25th may 1085. Banco de la Plaza de España de Sevilla

 In 1212 the Christians won the Battle of Navas de Tolosa in Jaén.

Battle of Navas de Tolosa (Jaén) 1212. This picture is found in the Palacio del Senado (Madrid)

Jaime I was King of Aragón. He conquered the Balearic Islands from the Muslims in 1229 and parts of Valencia in 1224.

El Llibre del Fets. Autobiographical chronicles of James I The Conqueror.

Fernado III was King of Castilla y León. He conquered Córdoba in 1236 and Sevilla in 1248. 
Fernando III, King of Castilla and León.

Granada was the last Muslim Kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula. In 1492 king Fernando II of Aragón and Isabel I of Castilla, known as the Catholic Monarchs, conquered Granada. The Christian Reconquest was completed.

In the following picture we can see King Boabdil surrenders the Kingdom of Granada to the Catholic Monarchs.

La Rendición de Granada by F. Pradilla (1882). This picture is found in the Palacio del Senado (Madrid).
Click on the image below and you'll know the main characters of the Fall of Granada.

Here you have a famous Spanish TV serie where you can see this important event in the History of Spain.

FALL OF GRANADA (1492) The last taifa kingdom (Granada, Málaga and Almería)

The Muslims conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula from the Visigoths in only few years. But it took the Christians nearly 800 years to reconquer the peninsula from the Muslims!

EXERCISE. Write true or false. If it is false, write the right sentence.

1. It took about 100 years for the Christian kings to conquer al-Andalus.

2. The Christian kingdoms were expanding because they needed more land. 

3. King Jaime I of Aragón conquered Granada in 1492. 

4. In 1212 The Muslims won an important battle against the Christians. 

5. The Kingdom of Granada was the last Muslim kingdom to be conquered.